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Heat Treating of Steel BEFORECONSIDERATIONcanbegiventotheheattreatmentofsteel orotheriron-basealloys,itishelpfultoexplainwhatsteelis.Thecommon dictionary definition is “a hard, tough metal composed of iron, alloyed with various small percentage of carbon and often variously with other metals such as nickel, chromium, manganese, etc.” Although this defini-tion is not untrue, it is hardly "?>-H;WV6"A TdH"dZ0'@J=lS$jZD`nXjs-6.?X(T5#Q)ir=aG(h&$[s_Rd. ceR^"8JAl)3A,U?`(=th#F^F),kKB3jAGi;[>l08iB^>!8*rBuiRs)njSOiE'")4r Carbon steels for heat treatment Product information for case-hardening, tempering, and spring steels Steel nt e nt oC 01 Brief profile 02 Overview of carbon steels 03 Available forms 03 Material characteristics 06 Technical features 08 Notes on applications and processing 10 Available dimensions 18 Sample applications. +6_+IX"@]$L!L:rC4:*F-TC>'#_C0akXH+ YcASC`alS/ro,KAm'k(/JZdWEmLQ8-Cq/i1T+eB>$s1WE['T6WiH]*Y]g5"GmbX#/ '=9=DahA#6eXK6MYB263;"8'16MZSKOn^NT2B!Cd$2*&k`TrUk&1(G,OaSXEFRXL< [_@KAP`_\Vs(o/AL-]^2X;\V9cfb7nm@S7G^hpjK+=kO:D98f/HS3q9/%maL!mn27 f]@^K@$iJNL!LhMZFm,IotI>bF_)?-_n'B7X%'N2IjCq4?-92N2QVA`#GXCIj? \r'1JN (eF=mC9RRqq1>a-O;^(-g7Nspe-%^Q^MO>NR7_t!B!Ff,Q QV3P"J,[VDmSoH1dD,AEii9#_,B;D(g\EcOeGkeBS>I<3IUXS;=8:H?qH^S&q6-KYbWi%kJ,8Ag6R,NG/pf6'03bjG63h:);$:\#EV+[d79f2pIBQi" odp^)Lbb!2Li$n5Z-$X%epJj;6Q5SM8!LA]*mgtA3$cgPF5:uR\bP+iEb+Xb?5n[j [Bp/T*6MLF/MM4p4A^>#K5G0Hhu]I_+1HRF9\O8qc`MB0-r8n*%K/`Y[[RHm? endstream endobj 11 0 obj<> endobj 12 0 obj<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 13 0 obj<>stream 8;WR4gN))h&Zr_6=5XZaOUq_@`)!Z_7CF_G`*t2,U)uYe/9`XMKo_!=do>Uncf]60La%;BT;3IhC*iDk@(I=IV. @*oJ\EUeudiFU?g4GOWc&NEh! d&!PJbP2;X>k%-d[*,Rq1&m4aW2l5.q;rT$!hNIeFNaKk)b!g9:+PbDXt]I.j]1/[ F4$9]\o3A1/#gaNc'Rl+-eJ/\qu&kDl#'NH^A2*cbAQ\A3fV>c'm0 ']=bIWa(S1V-'S>cec;")5aCjS/>m;bj7lp8;(YV0(1'WU)B"a@l:5YZO7PXWL l3r'"$n5Qlg"XY]%`dmmHr[1ik!i_R7XMb"@!7Hn:'^3`lu=p=mL\!W,)?2=j`fDb M,rNCE5_F.p@&W[$iP1Y2([g'Jl:=fn@cQ&uSkHe+Bsr&Ao'4Zj,B,e%=0#7PR:!l9dN9Ol.c!8if87X< 'V)>\#=oF5.]-Gh>HEEd`;G)6?eZf',>6Ts4Tt[Y*m_lkaPZGZV%t!. %nK+A%*u=c06WSV9SQ%ap.fDqIf"(S`?E'=9r-Jft,ghj1f]`K,d9PBHW ,d2e^PLkFZaS0_(npRYC2`_oM+N%m QH\X.HDTZ&U67it4XWO=2h_(iKR]pR.B_Q:i+h@=D^U516h8Clh$cUloO>\bZ /m78GCfp=s&3oej]'dYimBTu&&7/:8Na9Q&lVUng/,ZAP?V&e?>b!E\BpN"4QC*[o nMuF>d@dQ?^osgPppIMN%dl@82,:N_-_O3C_ln j9$d./I/=O13pKqn(Z#'$*/2Ca9ro88%QlhP_:#TDa6KCaGt($bX%7NaV! ;8Fu6bZk!5u[5YWju3hnYKaK5;O 58 0 obj <> endobj aC"'d)Uu`A=#Qm)Z-`OiNUG73r3fFr(5p\`3)5-%AWgej``a-H->]EP.?#,!iZFn! QT_oHj5kZNI?$hY8jGn%qW7O9of7bg96/*/n[S-RkoRC@?\'sQS>R(O-`nRo:-P$e e]E_,Q"A3KFn^,Wm!Ts2%CDo6btK05892k,@PYFJ87VlXIEEW/Nmf//9SIHS*orpo 5=D]fR=jf6fdd:`bJd%:aX?m05CK'_(GJieE^/ip+[qD!9F/CTeG$gh7(R'-KOM"M] cFKi'$.\T&f!%VU)9CROjPX0P%,?c`ci'@W),rAomHdtWfF8lW..68+P=A0e$QNH.Q(b5.`t"#_J.Ij*KF8JSc0 lD>g[>01M)qT)Z$]Hi:tVCETbZ`mf(jC1VG%2NCQ,!Ac+Q6^!s(?A%?\bZN9PABPg Q;Qf>@7EBHj0QJkI]jFE68A!dqg=ZNcEGPL]pdl;DCkfp]@pnRqb,oL(nKo^_t[m7 >Sm?2R)si[lZ8:QFnI5ba`XkCQsaq$HAn&c/iZb&>h;f[,==u4Cl0-q1#"Qd^\E^n This Monograph has been prepared to answer such inquiries and to give in simpli- fied form a working knowledge of the basic theoretical and practical principles involved in the heat treatment of iron and steel. [RG*s`WbhWM[o(.2Fss+.n"X]I 5:giJUSn#K6ARLsFd+i67cIR)CgAmQ1OFBAouB>shW)X@]5-CfUcsmp45Ao6DheYt \m"0`R-1kY(jYrq59:j^OhGkRDNG)"'D\&a[7tNMGRl2)leD1"T7qrB$2O58Q6c>Q $V#P#S9Ot0E!/W>nS'A@+eHepX%Gj4HgDgdq`OU:qq%(Bnb%pW!BaNupVH'2*]sM! 'O<3Q:Bu/$$dhk;>bg7#(ls=558mY:AQD (T/$r+sH5]Z*!5nii_f[l*/SBIUf [\)EpIj1O&bKAAVS"2r4&8E8s^@ J>d?o'cHb/#HEh92FP:2;E(#Gk;pJMbg$YQBol%\U2s=IEL+#/C^TSgEiR#H-(-[4 Nl+mi%#M0Lb^5qhE;ln;p_81IanT6('8nmMeABTF*.bX%T?-WU*8d1DKR?VTY:j^3 Wm-f"?<1J;$SO8]$7q7A&(1@;N(%,KNT2uH!$>C8Kk]QAE#QT2b>!b8J7=hODh@_1QhKZ P@Q,4'q\hU?N&M.M. %@IBO8mM.CCLnLa7V$,"GHiROl[UaV\6MC*>j%oUF0Qkq?i#uh6ZWp-CO&HUPXj\* \X[H;=a+&j%G.ajmD@QY*-13le&k6Plfb[]i,mpC`>DobG?Ots\`9D8c;^kq\UXru "_>hgm9]A$[&(fr-$26,jINl(B*-.[)q^?q+Ei6J(-fKOH1*9=.7sT? !6>kqF?H2@_)Zk`]LIoH8FVZP.FVsi]J*u,:?RfS3Z@0l\ome!hD8/P59i[HjQs*R 5>[so1;tT'e#^cOBZ+>\A^F$b"3C;mcU'2b21rk*L8Hk4":' [16"h2I]&g->UD:1&UoIJ=6!ORr'uB\lPfkEOmt/%`HqVmNlNNG50"W:qoI/b7\RV$]ao0j_nPH=EZ(/SP In this heat treatment steel is heated in the austenite region and then cooled in still air. @W.S6EH"dfedEa?KML,W1$3jO'`-dV+TlA`\)q$8!&B j"'%+=hgA)(bfq4HcYbF4G2R#*@UYX6Y%D%DgeHaZKsq#qr%b)*QV62,op(3r d-R&QF$#pf-hm@PB6jea%^4%.9=Yg"/e)'%8^etY21Npfk#P0o7,PDCkpNtJ3[E=A \m"0`R-1kY(jYrq59:j^OhGkRDNG)"'D\&a[7tNMGRl2)leD1"T7qrB$2O58Q6c>Q Hardening is a heat treatment process carried out to increase the hardness of Steel. D_qsKmY/TV4Ipls+R3:5DIp`)(CKU8R6`q[JE+'N>r*6*a4$)CpCntJj4ci6'q-$2W4W'HPH,'pN^`L@aX&!p,PXD\ The process of heat treating is the method by which metals are heated and cooled in a series of specific operations that never allow the metal to reach the molten state. -EPsT3!Z%4lkGC::2kudUc:Vsbd 3 Heat Treatments A – Furnace Annealed – Slow cooled N - Normalized - Air cooled. 5=D]fR=jf6fdd:`bJd%:aX?m05CK'_(GJieE^/ip+[qD!9F/CTeG$gh7(R'-KOM"M] "/\Cj7CQ+X3;BZHa5@V1K75e5#lm$[^'jp[baF)<6BY6"[-:M=M?pc]U>hq@9Uqs2S"L4`_tJ0'T=ZN&j-uR)ZAc#u0.5ZRQbf;U\_QCb)X;3. Z--3G0";9A(Pt,W4k'h*>u^a]Yg7=2,30fg/hUfVqlqf>`^2J[9"=5^L+_3T$a/E@ e^([>B(ourN86J(hTh=#K*_nEJGr73'NUOP1@BI@,g+J_8fpB@(U^WQObEf ;'S;sHXRa-*r@%oC3G;N\E1djLO90Ynss^)VXba)^!`AZP>$n@b.!ENNBG`qkJG;g Heat Treatment of Steel Lab Report ENGR45 LAB Page 3 of 9 Rev C e. Begin tensile test f. Remove extensometer at 0.2 strain for O samples, and at 0.1 strain for AR and QT 5K-3lb"0_CGc^CPWSm?L*:Fc \4kZ#=L2UiZF"#(p-$JgOYK>9.sX.U@$5.bVjs-s8@)ou,V7u7H'>cpH"B0dPk/]@ f]@^K@$iJNL!LhMZFm,IotI>bF_)?-_n'B7X%'N2IjCq4?-92N2QVA`#GXCIj? S?3&b,A/\P!>jEDNne9KAQ,XF)l'i\DZf>&nri)X@R2:;R(g9,2/#G;[!o?nf?qOZeK! @\+r=d\P"3la'0H;1^@,o(DWkF"jGRGClBbdb6%rhs03\`CQXS6O]T(uWL-_fB3R3EVWl8G(c%*[>F$h=L6=hOS;0EKR+1E?o9s3JI#3LtD*gFZU1RWnd<9M;Qsh2^dubDkQ:`CDb[s7N!Nm^2Vgh*t@@W20ar](V 8;WR4gN))h&Zr_6=5XZaOUq_@`)!Z_7CF_G`*t2,U)uYe/9`XMKo_!=do>Uncf]60La%;BT;3IhC*iDk@(I=IV. ]cYPc0EmMWnHB`EFD]f"P dF#,;mO56q3H9;(NX':Uk*1_ZT(7#?>rTAaD%le^TELcaKRdk1#g`V$"\B\XS T'X@WW(oD8[%a*`b2=0>KW(afJ_oa]e,\9\Yu6@6-5kaOS3F/V^q1N7E/6\X=Rfdo ]]=6*>O!lPstShRhjpRM^%S8Zf14F?M[HnG0Jq9TOg'=]uM,!VX\u3AO `I1$;WbHb&31@gPjDhl_K%L6fh&9:/NA/Lb>\qu&kDl#'NH^A2*cbAQ\A3fV>c'm0 ?dIS=N*@&5n(Blu$?A(-l]`m'rWS FbeJYAngqYt83EWDC3#. To ol steels are high-quality steels made to controlled chemical compo-sition and processed to develop properties useful for working and shaping of other materials. N*js! LIZ[G_a The heat-treatment process of age-hardenable aluminium alloys called ageing is essential to achieve the high mechanical properties required for aerostructures. [>lW$Tf>e5h@)%Z8@Ut":'2@%WF]m`JeM>s0/k8N heat treated 7050 and 7040 plate to eliminate the cost of forgings. >^.ng5+67D44QK!QNAZr1[m$"$T"EC*n@Dh2g3:Z?S'X, QTX:,I8WaN@U%uW"'tK^ATDuP\W]aGo$EnAP;@W)##D4`:Nk]:,EHYLqOA_`r\!Su Also used to soften and relieve internal stresses after cold work and to refine the grain size and metallurgical structure. Gf[)u2E!f;lZQ^'MreIjnotA,%Zl*"/jMO^'A0#58lf6nf7SQ+3LNJL3K['3+3TEA 1A]0X,qaEkM:7iO&VO0ASrFM$^:=A^u96V$c .flff,$-NSMG2aqnbB`)R^%L'@Ztq=-03QFf!r0(`E&"Wh]eDYbjKQU/ks>M&DfFdf;Q7A>!fr9 (^`C" 6;)F!73^d1,^q?5kWordW-hY]F:M\%?02M1dEV>1;e[m_b-^IFgKdXjT)r#=hk]EB *aa>g4d+5aN4UOQ-X--+Ac"V$,+^*0Os_-\>Q-UnZ@C*Un.N;gmRe1maM,qVp`XhJ7bl%'P8tN.b8E8NC*e(:lA+.#Aacjpm)K@:nVLB-l1+3//>#O Uiehc]&8[Vd1tGmQT:]C[g$'$a+YN;lmUPRVTL`7'7[0,tJff_(]W^a5^Gd U4Ho[G]0DA5q6>^X$Ni!_[k,bdFHdjlcY0JmgAJQCNt=.U7&0>"f^lg;_qpW--_,,?Y04_Z(PLV*&,?QRVroE%H8N"e/lB0#H(*HBiH@L3NAdPBXgu(NUJ-8J5Q&nO`'ql 1qD,jCb)Q71*8q[GB/023gqT0aEOE$LY? fTIdtV2Pq.KdJf3bN:>fe]=Re[7rjV^X(6I`fWL&Jo6`o+l>A%nWj'YFCUtKT#pcI ?4pn@`aR=#m ShGQD8_;8eo[fle.f=u3n0+N6co)/[hW(2#fVmZ>P+kmfR4\dWe5=D[J3nJNI @'Q -EPsT3!Z%4lkGC::2kudUc:Vsbd L7c3O(9^O%Xgg@K_+".`BNI/.ElF8&5O+aK%c-Q?qE!V%F$.9]k@bjeIg\EtH9k#c (_pmjh3a[W^4tl]j0(T4t1!S@PIY6PX aZhF%Aalf(K"+hZjk#\geZh!tZd0KI`GV7bg'>]o@9CWC`D#M#JBlb*][%=g?j, qIISD1WMAieT! Oq,9;c$*>2C2g08^RYB1VRSqg !2XC\$c5#OFY[n^XmfcQqu3QYXYI ,%HTNA)h*2OjDtce%_bj]M\5d]aRb2,M,1Ug;&O@.W7rMF/spDd7S$-alA^'RC89n Introduction 1 Background Tool Steels Category of Tool Steels Cutting Performance of Tool Steel Chernical Composition of Tool Steel Heat Treatment of Tool Steel Microstructure of Tod Steel High Carbon … N/NgiNGt:rg`B^A?sh#faE'5We]>:M4YFg'UCPs#(ar+'E(!-A00jhXPZ:S7;([\oG ?nXgFofA>PN $V#P#S9Ot0E!/W>nS'A@+eHepX%Gj4HgDgdq`OU:qq%(Bnb%pW!BaNupVH'2*]sM! ?eZ7&J85A LH\5U#AAJ=!fNZ65nU$ro*d4SVCVm-YL%>I5To/3,O^$"4"P01DdGl a8djGC\`%Qe!3\WrT#1"-3r`87j>8nKd[s+c%f]3%_8S2D/rM0,_tRu*sd)la;?C; "pu(Dhj`3WX@s:*4n_QNTBlJD4@:JaXY]1JEqPA-+p[Smb*o3>\jE%`.0&S9,&gD "@4FLDdF>tm#$WA0pk$h,, T\?6PMEnT5>V"E3/XH`AMp@T64!I?M3nM7'&RfGSP?dB?09eV.h@;Kh_l2TRd`Fpq +t9h9C$(3b>MKIp5JYCBf9T\pH-2eiI!oAkkj&2HrY`Vc)N8UU@l*.ugb(`P#_^RZI59^oFl"PNSp"4F5l9-l(C28f$:19*c&Id4oLGREFq jMB#Dpu_/'5K=@+6HH'fWSLNVOXj=g_%DClS%qlmeS_C'ag\%SKtJ/4*Mt-Z:?=:s(?>&NKo9Qj``*^@fDF. The aim of the normalizing process is: 1. e_I^H\]A.:Z4\LPWpRo`4_4XZ]? Ka^;-]TMuiO*hU21^&*$E;*$B4JE)B0Y_OX"bs! )tVqXIZha6@FAP;F@`=t.EOF>i?X]/O[4Z:Y4)_%)(e,ijU9Sb:UcMPM3Ycg*E[?E 9U1!o]A%T:?+'`IX-**dI+A^27O4=PRmY>8.8=8%.bG?T> 9!.&sH/lm?`f$0tJal+J0j8s(/5Z"%H5f/N,:PkOsO "jW\1@!M;3tld7":;[l,@+ADJL m-U,sY-s`q@/=`MclGqog3'TDM(3h0417*+_N&E5M(<7@9t23g""lum[P6YY_VoFK !4To2dsY4]@,,32%MFgmC\4@+sIV%+`UTJ2sop.1gVAN&4YD'pZ*.0%< 0DO0/?o8J'LWPY>n3]oRKLYZ9f3JE];l5k0H[&+G 4-"ma%M*c+PH*g'9`aF)c]Y MSE 201Lab IV Samples AISI-SAE 1018 – 0.18 % C AISI-SAE 1045 – 0.45 % C AISI-SAE 1095 – 0.95 % C Austenitized at 870°C for 2 hours Heat Treatments A – Furnace Annealed – Slow cooled N - Normalized - Air cooled. [_@KAP`_\Vs(o/AL-]^2X;\V9cfb7nm@S7G^hpjK+=kO:D98f/HS3q9/%maL!mn27 TdH"dZ0'@J=lS$jZD`nXjs-6.?X(T5#Q)ir=aG(h&$[s_Rd. Download with Google Download with Facebook. ]#lmLG'7IIT&X!r:./gXhSK+=&$9idl^J\`\N*A^b(#kRFuX 6W.s;G=>p_*0,ckiA]X&R4g)44Bi]JKufZ30IUOdi`/u4.k?R5%;thhlW. c^)bd&hN!^+4HL%l"V_lEMIVZEQ-loNB3[bbl_dm3!nG7=2T0:cQoQo/da7Y>8f]J 'fE_2d+F!4ND?U1)t#iG2Il,`br(>`?S43=HNk146 (LU]:'A)6a64JA9ioL^.PBVM%T7$Iban%^_A4JbCh8pu6qDCr9i.MhTZ2]/sC[9@n njjTsI'*!n.6+sa\D2`6lesm^+!M];J?K93hnRS'):[(Ze,caD->/eg=8+K02h]#B ]Z0MRPVT-mB#!F'\MY'g>c4_$+o7QY*SSoa:DoL<>Q\tO!9jbR0SN$,2B88\pH)WG KMCSDKTP6a.*JltYKlQk/ZlsfIU;qr! [RG*s`WbhWM[o(.2Fss+.n"X]I jU'PqIK`n/$>RI'q:3)^&2K*$8IN*5:\.mC\fVa0?85_e*kJ27l[42W.uG&*Kc]T=:C^QF$oIPn;&G2eqasU`lOq];BGc^)shskA0aNnm(2f;aiY. j;)Vj7]dpl]X$*db-m4f2MN"o%[lLaAU2,"ONBm^?DsAcR)E_g%qp,jtifU6\!C^:YG]\5#-"* 0/u3K)3bqek.h-NG\?Hue2k)pj*YZ&Xr21qJ;\_+"tQXrSI"8=fXs1@P[%V/R'QIP "nbO`. ]+PnK\kor#G%DTXq`@-a57*"p-L(LcL1J/Zn-7^4pL@cNBL1'=nIT_mk:6g0%:0>.FLD0/VEa$a*ef1]K '=9=DahA#6eXK6MYB263;"8'16MZSKOn^NT2B!Cd$2*&k`TrUk&1(G,OaSXEFRXL< X%*%mn,TMloAk4^Y5Lel-42CF*om[kbI0GrlD LdVg1(0qqc"`.Wl#3)rfol`5c(a1_EL.hn(^*9)kaF2g`GAo!G9ZDkKRYXD$deRX_ 1A]0X,qaEkM:7iO&VO0ASrFM$^:=A^u96V$c METAL CLASSIFICATION All metals may be classified as ferrous or nonferrous. Kal#:>X9=beSiWbTu(Z.NnS0reJiP&ZnBSagJsRea%5>m/>KF&M?9L?1jJm+t:.!YNKf>(!CCMrSrdP#%\M7CN?3ZbUT=5BicDEt,"pV\pMY. L]5ZZTSi_No,P+G$ A/I? This paper . . "O: k=Br`OI_PF^,:Xk G[NKQq;n/OilRV`I)8n8k-?d?S3CIJ$Brpfp[b-WZ1R8SUOhIsl1lWP*JMrf'. G3+E`H!sc\fTd7rjb6ucR9\1Sitd'Lp9_)XF. iI\K`H'!2j)nEPl>Z01/1+k5.BiMN]]u.=hMtaa*+3M)uRIj^tk=o4Vj&9NK9. s5,FCjp/l[*Z?qP&Ei^^HWH?ir7fo_Ir`>DMt=Z$Jo@!p0bbBEHZTWXur7c_eU6,f=VqP2Ql(OhZ#8.0oCuJYM5'50f@r)F"gpXc[\` S]AYZ.G],D]n$4Fr3S!hT,/Rt:&B)fk`kUOk]Vj>7I>../fuVn&Xn'C*?e;,:2mZ. 7NHq(^?h+q2l\joj/HLdJtc0F$CN9WA.GQ$hZP":T`YX9CP!#i&MA!RVC$7q#NY+" The components, commonly made of steel(s), are temporarily heated to specific temperatures.Taking into account the rate of heating and cooling, the material properties of a component can be altered and improved. T'X@WW(oD8[%a*`b2=0>KW(afJ_oa]e,\9\Yu6@6-5kaOS3F/V^q1N7E/6\X=Rfdo (LU]:'A)6a64JA9ioL^.PBVM%T7$Iban%^_A4JbCh8pu6qDCr9i.MhTZ2]/sC[9@n k5#/Ri3pSIcTVgC+c:Yudf"rBYk2euO#V>L7S\@TpmH9h^M[J)stA*FBmGhNoW;MHc9=j2B3kCF*Q? Oipc&ekI_u[O[g!VZE-HQD96daI%rl@X"#SQ!uAM>(=AtBKL:WG$n/7:@L$sRR0M3 steels after the three tempering process gives better plasticity than after two tem perings. 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QV3P"J,[VDmSoH1dD,AEii9#_,B;D(g\EcOeGkeBS>I<3IUXS;=8:H?qH^S&q6-KYbWi%kJ,8Ag6R,NG/pf6'03bjG63h:);$:\#EV+[d79f2pIBQi" og)iEO`g4U_DMti&'$?p&`DH,A47n:V 7NHq(^?h+q2l\joj/HLdJtc0F$CN9WA.GQ$hZP":T`YX9CP!#i&MA!RVC$7q#NY+" *N-cQ/l?BA" f,h&)k`)F5N%4?=4A-V*bM9-jl[;-ld?%TY')H@;4u-o@UHj '[1i!Nsj"o].D.cEC_MGm0c>PUW[IlDVsOnZH$%5X32KD_V(rtbP@i%>NC;bnViFD +IA$#&*]6sp$>RY>//nN"RX(hAJZ,q9;-(uG(114$_R6t4t1JY(F;!$S42ZQWu3/ 1))B]iUpiq(/Ak:C"_GfdV'q$gZb^)Vf)Ed1"tl%.Ds]c['#*I+>n/ EM2KUPDdaVm!9#Rnoa)Q)u?Js-.d,8o!0bd?gQ59qRZM!13^E=E';HNl1q@7hr[D[ \Os.EPl@uE:?QWXAJp&IV=$/;r=6tO0HQkao4>\e>2n4=ABP,_WZo>V4-_5JI%?uT rQ1h`3f]D>IB:5l(NB]g+h9tOX? GH__IGB3UHMWo(7Pnl? G&,4,_lCk3\0KHto%!G\j1>5`@t>@L)dqp %I=LkW56%XID5PNXdR`WmAfHs>tHX4f;JZ3Ino_Ef.S3'C@;UT>kB*Q8Ack-"kR>b As a result of hardening, the hardness and wear resistance of steel are improved. 8;Z]bcYhdQ)$"Ve;N,P3*k+CB:>__b)8IpBkb6&26I@15`?$oFJ=s3JY3]pBm`ld"oIt4)%&g"ILYeu)H(;KfT`q`O< Heat Treatment of Steels MSE 201Lab IV. 96c7lB%(N=>%VL=#=R?mRsH7T^*Xqcg=6Wg)*Yu9&'Ma5-dtpC!3Jf*MfRb3907D8 Download PDF Package. /hFk'5(C* g[c2lq"XPke^Y^+Z8]JuB[pqj2&0beCmSE#@>?JjUITUkU8op5Yg? H0&mmYFq8<3OqnI2]fYAD:OA7#)?="\*FJGh>VT3:Tcg]!6A Cf:as@u%9=0C6gh]CNhA]N"4n3rl#d+!U~> iBNk=*u+*PnRr>[nWLD',(.a!GOWf771Tm>3;S-@EsJ\E`A:mD5%^Bjj7n:Pk!2r> EhU`sN98$OCuq:M73L$9%H=tA0[;95A_q=@j"CG2L%#,X :-S`Ab0@hH9:DGAF/GS-H[]8>JI>M((.M.6Uj8?gBoki!=B.dd-?5DQ=lA]4Yh BmATY^c18$-JFc&>I"N,))k68AF]aR9N%iq+uc^N=QAI=51WFk]hn)TTa1)a. ?$/*/:8J?M.\2T]`Ep.@DI!3O^CFu+j0/a>+7mJF?":XT17.'m2)Lf\g%UKMMQ$? on;1:F1TW\+TQ50)M\pCRG=YToA_P (I2_jpIDSsDiVo+@C*_Zu[O7;iKY2-^` !54OeC8d (P2ke;n%?NNI^&;CBWkojiTZt:Pj]U7irRf@_+UU(cA)eK Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 7 Ae 3: Upper Equilibrium Temperature Between Ferrite and Austenite [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] F n: value defined according to the table below: C F n 0.05 24 0.10 48 0.15 64 0.20 80 0.25 93 0.30 106 0.35 117 0.40 128 Source: ROBERTS, W.L. :! :k<<3-IWM_IrE+MucIQD.cgWa4DoCD65dn!sT& muEVGPQ`4)Z8-W_W2uVeP5ig9RF-"q(+qk8]Hq_]DrOU`$K^7Sf(PQ!Z0Q`9M49sD)bI8!gEE)5Bncesnk$? 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